The 87-year-old monarch has bestowed a Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (Mbe) medal on the Grammy Award-winning 25 year old, while funnyman Atkinson has been awarded a Cbe (Commander of the Order of the British Empire).
Adele's Mbe comes during a very special year for the new mum - she picked up her first Oscar in February (13) for co-writing the theme to hit Bond film Skyfall.
The two celebrities are among the nearly 1,200 people who have been recognised by The Queen on her birthday.
Atkinson's former Blackadder sidekick Tony Robinson has been handed a knighthood and will therefore be able to add 'Sir' to his name.
Upon hearing the news, Robinson, 66, told the Bbc, "I'm thrilled, flattered and a little gob-smacked," adding, "I'll use my new title with abandon to highlight the causes I believe in, particularly the importance of culture, the arts and heritage in our society, and the plight of the infirm elderly and their carers.
"I also pledge that from this day on I'll slaughter all unruly dragons, and rescue any damsels in distress who request my help."
Meanwhile, one-time Bond villain Julian Glover, actress Claire Bloom and revered cinematographer Roger Deakins join Atkinson on the list of Cbe recipients, celebrated sculptor Anish Kapoor has been given a knighthood, British comedian Rob Brydon and singer PJ Harvey have been honoured with Mbes and grown-up child star Aled Jones has picked up an Obe (Most Excellent Order of the British Empire) medal.
The 42 year old Walking in the Air hitmaker says, "I'm delighted and deeply honoured to be recognised."
Authors Jackie Collins, Kate Mosse and Joanne Harris have also been recognised on The Queen's Birthday Honors List - Collins and Mosse pick up Cbes for services to literature, while Harris is among the Mbe recipients.